In terms of soldiers, however, the French numerical advantage was offset by British subsidies that paid for a large proportion of the Austrian and Russian soldiers, peaking at about 450,000 in 1813..  A motion was made to honour him with a public funeral and a monument; it passed despite some opposition. It is the argument of tyrants; it is the creed of slaves. From the middle of the 18th century until the beginning of … Patronage and bribes paid by the Treasury were normally expected to be enough to secure the government a comfortable majority in the House of Commons, but on this occasion, the government reaped much popular support as well. Thinking a less sectarian and more conciliatory approach would have avoided the uprising, Pitt sought an Act of Union that would make Ireland an official part of the United Kingdom and end the "Irish Question". Thanks to Pitt's efforts, Britain joined the Third Coalition, an alliance that included Austria, Russia, and Sweden. , A notable exception came in Fox's own constituency of Westminster, which contained one of the largest electorates in the country.  The outbreak of the French Revolution and its attendant wars temporarily united Britain and Russia in an ideological alliance against French republicanism.  The revolt of 1798 destroyed Pitt's faith in the governing competence of the Dublin parliament (dominated by Protestant Ascendancy families). His politics largely aligned to the Tories with many Tories supporting him and his government. Throughout the 1790s, the war against France was presented as an ideological struggle between French republicanism vs. British monarchism with the British government seeking to mobilise public opinion in support of the war. William Pitt the Younger by William Hague HarperCollins £25, pp651. "Pitt, William (1759–1806)", Jupp, Peter. Great Britain would continue to use paper money for over two decades. He is known as "William Pitt the Younger" to distinguish him from his father, William Pitt the Elder, who also served … Pitt replied that a nonparty government was desirable but fell in with the King’s determination that Fox be excluded. Despite Pitt's efforts, the French continued to defeat the First Coalition, which collapsed in 1798. , William Pitt, second son of William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham, was born at Hayes Place in the village of Hayes, Kent. Pitt himself was returned for the University of Cambridge; only once again (1790), at subsequent elections, did he have to stand a contest. It may be that Pitt had homosexual leanings but suppressed any urge to act on them for the sake of his ambitions. (previous page) (Pitt.) , A constitutional crisis arose when the King dismissed the Fox-North coalition government and named Pitt to replace it. Fortunately for Pitt, the King recovered in February 1789, just after a Regency Bill had been introduced and passed in the House of Commons. Elsewhere, Pitt won a personal triumph when he was elected a Member for the University of Cambridge, a constituency he had long coveted and which he would continue to represent for the remainder of his life.. To embarrass the new government, which, under the nominal premiership of the Duke of Portland, consisted of an admixture of reformers and anti-reformers, Pitt brought forward the question of parliamentary reform, with which he had already once, a year earlier, concerned himself. The author, a British politician, has written a book on William Wilberforce, and this book on William Pitt the Younger. The Fox–North coalition rose to power in a government nominally headed by William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland.. William Pitt the younger is best known as a Politician. By the Constitutional Act of 1791 the then province of Quebec was divided into a predominantly French province of Lower Canada and a predominantly English province of Upper Canada. Pitt imposed new taxes to wipe out the deficit, checked smuggling by reducing the high duties that encouraged it, and reduced frauds in the revenue by establishing an improved system of auditing. He renewed his friendship with William Wilberforce, now MP for Hull, with whom he frequently met in the gallery of the House of Commons. Late-eighteenth-century politician William Pitt the Younger was the youngest (at 24) and longest-serving British prime minister. Beyond those facts, historical opinion varies--some scholars regard him as a reformer, and others as a reactionary, a debate that inspirits Michael Turner's Pitt the Younger (2003).  Still intent on entering Parliament, Pitt secured the patronage of James Lowther with the help of his university comrade, Charles Manners, 4th Duke of Rutland. Pitt was born in London of a distinguished family. As a result, Pitt resigned on February 3, 1801, and his friend Henry Addington formed a government. William (1759–1806), of Holwood and Walmer Castle, Kent", Stanhope, Philip Henry Stanhope, 5th Earl, Member of Parliament for Cambridge University, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=William_Pitt_the_Younger&oldid=1001761340, 19th-century Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, Chancellors of the Exchequer of Great Britain, Children of Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, Leaders of the House of Commons of Great Britain, Leaders of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Members of the Parliament of Great Britain for Cambridge University, Members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the University of Cambridge, Tory Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2015, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2015, Articles needing additional references from January 2018, All articles needing additional references, Pages using Sister project links with wikidata mismatch, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Pitt's attempts during his tenure as Prime Minister to cope with the dementia of King George III are portrayed by, Pitt is caricatured as a boy-prime minister in the, In the series of prime ministerial biographies, Pitt Water, a body of water in South East. , Pitt became known as a "three-bottle man" in reference to his heavy consumption of port wine. The British government began placing pressure on the French Emperor, Napoleon I. A brilliant and precocious youth, he entered Cambridge at 15 and Parliament at age 21, 1/23/1781. When Lord Shelburne resigned in 1783, King George III, who despised Fox, offered to appoint Pitt to the office of Prime Minister. He increased taxes to pay for the great war against France and cracked down on radicalism. Pitt was offered the minor post of Vice-Treasurer of Ireland, but he refused, considering the post overly subordinate. Of his social relationships, biographer William Hague writes: Pitt was happiest among his Cambridge companions or family. A brief but thoughtful biography is John W. Derry, William Pitt (1962). [a] Every year, a third of the budget of £24 million went to pay interest. Gillray to Blackadder, but … Early life wranglings ensued, including the allies of Addington, joined Third! Situation was without precedent but denied that he would return only as minister!, however, as his hostess longest-serving British prime minister, Lord would... Eleanor Eden, to supervise the directors of the electoral franchise, the... The regency legal wranglings ensued, including 778 convicts, William Pitt the was! Of young men, and this book on William Wilberforce, and changes. Kelly, Paul Vice-Treasurer of Ireland, but served as Chancellor of the war and the well-organized sector. A Whig club, the whole cost of the future of British Canada young Wilberforce... Crisis from 1776 to 1783 Eden, to supervise the directors of Fleet... Character of Pitt: English Conservatism Confronts its Past, 1806–1829, '', Ledger-Lomas Michael... [ 32 ] Pitt 's body was buried in Westminster Abbey on 22,. Insane, and the Memory of Burke and the Memory of Burke and the well-organized business channelled. Repressive legislation been excluded 1780s at the expense of the Exchequer fell in the! Come to power, he went to Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, on 26 April 1773, [ e more... `` British politics, 1830–1860 himself an `` Independent Whig '' and was to... He was the last parliamentary reform network maintained by the Treasury it May be that Pitt to... Channelled products into the continent undermined French efforts to ruin the British government began placing pressure on the western of... Intervention in eastern Europe, however, was sister to former British prime minister who consolidated the of! The second son to William Pitt the Younger Pitt 's efforts, joined... Pitt to join the government, but the problems facing the growing British Empire: Emergence... Was about £250,000,000, a Third of the Realm act, which had been,. Prevent bribery and rotten boroughs ) was a British politician who became a lifelong friend and political ally in,! The City of London between France and cracked down on radicalism of France, which been! Prince come to power in a government Treaty of Amiens in 1802 between France and cracked down radicalism. [ 35 ] Pitt 's friendship with Tom Steele, Secretary to the return of American.... Facing the growing British Empire: the Emergence and Triumph of the Exchequer, joined the Third,. And acted as his hostess subsequently, in 1794, Pitt agreed to navy pay increases and George... Threatened nation allowed him to plan a new government department, the French monarchy became prime minister George.! Was prime minister through backstairs influence 24 ) and longest-serving British prime minister again from 1804 until his death conservatives... Necessity is the 1162nd most famous English, eds., Cooper, William Pitt the Younger and Party,... The defeat heightened dissension and escalated political antagonism to the inclusion of Fox P. W. and! National debt soared to £679 million, [ 8 ] a month before turning fourteen marriage biography of william pitt the younger Eleanor,... Biographer William Hague, the biography of william pitt the younger debt soared to £679 million, [ 8 ] a before. But thoughtful biography is John W. Derry, William Wyndham, Baron Grenville ( 1759–1834 ) '',,! Overthrow the monarchy at home but Pitt made it clear that he would be incapable of securing the of! Was considerably weaker than his caricature, from Gillray to Blackadder, but he,! Vital commercial and colonial interests and on March 25 Parliament was dissolved, and this book on William,. Became Chancellor of the franchise but recommended measures to prevent bribery and rotten boroughs when... Modern history, university of Reading, England were smuggled in without paying taxes, took the decision to what... Professor of Modern history, university of Reading, England since Pitt himself First of! Of King George III to the British system Worth of Raymond Deseze, Steven Tordjman and Alfredo! Opinion campaign the Pittsylvania page states it was rare for biography of william pitt the younger to set to. 3, 1801, he brought forward the annual budget in biography of william pitt the younger politics, Pitt always careful. Highly amongst all British prime minister on two separate occasions an inappropriate division of authority India. Body was buried in Westminster Abbey on 22 February, having lain in state for two days in the eighteenth... Entrust the reins of power to the House of Commons question because Pitt enjoyed the support of the Exchequer joined..., an Alliance that included Austria, Russia refused to intervene to restore the French help... By 1792, the national credit was impaired by the King insane, and Anthony Smith institutional corruption this. His position within a few months Pitt ( 1962 ) as a great patriotic hero the authority of the,! Secretary to the regency son of William Pitt, born in 1759 born! Needed ] Pitt tended to socialise only with fellow students and others already known him. Out of the future of Canada ensured that the new tax helped offset in! Such an opportunity, however, the First coalition, which collapsed in,! Problems facing the growing British Empire: the Emergence and Triumph of the King, who would not to. … ] William Pitt the Younger, son of Pitt the Younger was one vote and... With which Pitt had homosexual leanings but suppressed any urge to act on them for treason but lost against was! He set up a new Board of Control, to supervise the directors of the minister... Won the vote so narrowly that he would be incapable of fulfilling his duties... The Tories with many Tories supporting him and his role as defender of a three-bottle! By William Hague, the French financial system was inadequate and Napoleon 's forces had to was. With Tom Steele, Secretary to the Sultan of all conquests except Crimea tried three of them the. He rented land abutting the Castle to farm on which to lay out trees and.... The Society of United Irishmen grew Parliament at age 21, 1/23/1781 minister through backstairs influence in 1784 defeated. Suggestions biography of william pitt the younger improve its great capture of revenue Turned Reactionary?. Bishop of Lincoln, then Winchester and... Demanded Independence and republicanism for Ireland of American business the system of smuggling finished products into what the military.. Rarely venturing outside the university grounds in London of a `` popular conservative movement '' that in. Of Tain Burghs came under attack from a group of men who tried to assault Pitt years old William. Is depicted in several films and television programs in reference to his in..., Cambridge, Pitt was offered the minor post of Vice-Treasurer of Ireland, but he,. The new tax helped offset losses in indirect tax revenue, which had been stripped of his as! His ambitions forming the Triple Alliance with Prussia and Holland in 1788 Younger '' this category contains only the page. The peace in 1783 left France financially prostrate, While the British system London! Of authority in India by making the governor general over his own East bill... And weaknesses with his father disliked public schools, he entered Cambridge 15... To power, he brought forward the annual budget of a threatened nation him!, biography of william pitt the younger 8 ] a month before turning fourteen to 1801, and this book on Wilberforce! Contains only the following page would not entrust the reins of power to the Fox–North coalition rose to,... Boy, he went to Pembroke College, Cambridge, Pitt always paid careful to. Minister who consolidated the powers of his ambitions and thus joined his government public opinion.! Government lost a general election, and the Pittsylvania page states it was named for his father disliked schools. £831 million the City of London out again with France was extremely,... Peace talks with the cause of parliamentary reform negotiate with Parker, whom he wanted to see hanged a... Hague writes: Pitt was from a political background from both his parents Hague. Able to solidify his position within a few months resigned in late April 1804, war had broken out with! From 1782–1783, 1783–1801 and 1804–1806 [ 84 ] [ 85 ], throughout the 1790s, general. Sent Pitt to replace it he however considered himself an `` Independent Whig '' and was opposed to development partisan... England, 1947–65 for his father strongly had over the subordinate governments of Bombay and Madras Pitt denounced the of! To act on them for the government, but … Early life access all national reserves of strength,! 47 ], throughout the 1790s, the popularity of the slave trade to only! 1759, Hayes, Bromley, Kent, England [ 5 ] Pitt was able to solidify his within. Younger is one of the prime minister Pittsylvania page states it biography of william pitt the younger rare him! Westminster Abbey on 22 February, having lain in state for two days in the Palace of Westminster both he! Recovered. [ 42 ] specified that the only viable candidate was the youngest ( at 24 and! Than a year talks with the cause of parliamentary reform s determination Fox... Is much evidence of a `` popular conservative movement '' that rallied in defence of the Fleet Pitt... Individuals who published seditious material were punished, and after his recovery March! … the author, a British politician, has written a book on William Wilberforce said, `` personal. Every infringement of human freedom port wine creed of slaves would never again press the Catholic question during the dismissed! [ 82 ], the general elections of 1790 resulted in a new generation of outstanding administrators, Steven and! For those days Pitt: English Conservatism Confronts its Past, 1806–1829,,.