livelihood vulnerability index calculation

Mitig Adapt Strat Global Chang 4:267–281. This study aims to examine the willingness of Pakistani farmers to pay for insurance premiums by conducting a household survey. However, the present study concluded that for delineating the vulnerability state of any area, hybrid ensemble model can be a better option over others. This research provides an important starting point for directing future research into the vulnerability of fishery-based livelihood systems to climate variability and change. Sensitivity to climate variability and change is influenced by conditions at the community and household level. Adaptive capacity of households is limited because of the lack of physical, natural, and financial capital and limited diversification of livelihoods. Financial capital, particularly income, is also an important indicator of adaptive capacity. The communities across watersheds showed a relative difference in the overall livelihood vulnerability index. • Health/Nutrition Profiles and other Livelihood Outcomes (Health and diseases, access to water and sanitation, consumption patterns, dietary diversity and nutritional status) • Shocks and Vulnerability Information (History of natural disasters, historical shocks International Journal on Advanced Science Engineering and Information Technology. Results obtained from the survey conducted in 2018 and 2019 explore the co-existence of climate change vulnerability and resilience at the rural household level. this study made it possible to make a comparative analysis of the deprivations suffered by Depleting water resources alarms us our approach toward development and drives us to take sustainable approach to conserve our natural resources. p 50, Vietnam: Focus on the relationship between tectonic fractures and landslides. 2003; IPCC 2007). The result shows that, each of these metrics varied systematically where the lowland agro ecological zone is the most exposed zone, the highland is the most sensitive zone and the midland is the most in adaptive capacity to climate variability and change. Through such an index "diverse issues can be combined into a standardised framework...making comparisons possible". Where V, E, S and AC represent vulnerability, exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of a household, respectively. While a number of studies have investigated the impact of climate change on the vulnerability and adaptive capacity of the fisheries sector at the national scale (e.g. Livelihood vulnerability index results. A composite index approach computes vulnerability indices by aggregating data for a set of indicators. market and house and climate change experience influence adaptationmeasure choices. The dataset from the sampled households was divided into quartiles of vulnerability (very high, high, moderate, and low), each representing a fourth of the population sampled for each indicator and index (Table 3). Application of livelihood vulnerability index to assess risks, ood vulnerability and climate variability, a case study in the Mekong delta of Vietnam. strategies and social networks; exposure to climate change and climate-induced extreme weather events, such as floods and droughts; and access to services and infrastructure. 38 Asia-Pacific Journal of Rural Development 29(1) Introduction An Giang is a province in the Mekong downstream area frequently affected by annual flood. At the local level, exposure and sensitivity are almost inseparable, and it is challenging to characterise them (Smit and Wandel 2006). doi:10.1111/j.1477-8947.2010.01302.x, Haddad BM (2005) Ranking the adaptive capacity of nations to climate change when socio-political goals are explicit. The normalised adaptive capacity sub-index was inverted (1- index) for inclusion in the vulnerability index because the potential impact (which is a function of exposure and sensitivity) of climate variability and change may be offset, reduced or modified by adaptive capacity (IPCC 2007). Among the 26 parameters , bank erosion, unhygienic condition, and Below Poverty Level (BPL) household parameters were found as highly dominating based on the findings of information and gain ratio. nancial, physical, and social capitals. Both could be usefully utilized into identification and prioritization of adaptation and mitigation policies at universal level. 54209. All three indicators of sensitivity are significant (p < 0.001 for most indicators) in distinguishing vulnerability classes in both communities. p 48. These components include competency, education, financial condition, livelihood strategy, social networks, socio-demographic profile, housing, water, energy, health, financial status, communication, climate extreme impact, geographic location, risk index and warning system. The qualitative data were transcribed in Bengali and analysed using coding techniques (Miles and Huberman 1994) before translation. Net A total of 543 households practicing mixed agro-livestock were surveyed from three districts, namely Dhading, Syangja and Kapilvastu representing three major ecological zones: mountain, mid-hill and Terai (lowland). The diagram re. Soc Sci, . Islam, M.M., Sallu, S., Hubacek, K. et al. Most men work as crews in small mechanised fishing boats. The case of HoaBinh province, Centre for, Sustainable Rural Development, Hanoi, p 33, change in the Northern mountainous region of Vietnam. L'objectif de la recherche est d'identifier les facteurs explicatifs de la vulnérabilité aux mauvaises conditions de vie des ménages agricoles du Département de l'Atacora au Bénin en testant l'un des principes économiques selon lequel le niveau de productivité réduit la vulnérabilité des ménages. demographic than Hien Luong commune. These factors are interrelated. Shannon’s entropy is one of the methods for assisting in making decision (ranking) objectively. 3.5 Livelihood vulnerability index calculation 3.5.1 Calculating the LVI: composit e index approach All eight major components of the LVI com prise several indicators or sub-components, and For instance, effective governance is important for adaptive capacity (Paavola 2008), but it is difficult to capture in an indicator (Vincent 2007). According to almost all the participants, floods are the most important determinant of vulnerability inland, while at sea it is cyclones. Proposed model accounted that about 36% to the total study area is under high to very high LVS and this area mainly covers the peripheral part of the charland. In Benin, agriculture fuels economic growth, offers investment opportunities and provides raw materials for the industry. Other impacts include physical injuries (Badjeck et al. ILRI (International Livestock Research Institute). 2009). ing the standardized scores of each main component: where M is one of the 13 major components, major component. doi:10.1007/s10113-010-0164-y, Smit B, Wandel J (2006) Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability. After normalisation the respective values were averaged to yield the three sub-indices for exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Besides, local government should propagandize and mobilize farmers here to give up backward, Infrastructural factors affecting vulnerability to climate-induced health shocks were not, study area, access to safe water was nonexistent in Pa Vay Su and limited in Hien Luong, (9.1%) and Moc Chau (27.3%), although a clean water program has been widely imple-, mented in the rural areas in the northwestern provinces during 2001, Main water sources for crops and livestock are natural resources. Area under curve (AUC) in Receiver operating characteristics (RoC) reported that the accuracy level is 0.96 in case of proposed model over maximum 0.92 predicted by the others. www.mrag.co.uk/Documents/PolicyBrief4_Livelihoods.pdf. The DPSIR framework helps in identifying the indicators of LVI and LEI vulnerability index as cause-effect relationship. nal sample size was 335 with completed questionnaires. measured by the number of natural disasters that have occurred in the past 6 years, while climate variability is measured by the average standard deviation of the maximum. 2007). was conducted to determine the level of livelihood vulnerability using sixteen components that measures adaptive capacity, sensitivity and exposure. Statistical Publishing, 88. doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.11.002, . Climate change vulnerability assessment framework for sustainable r, . Indicators of adaptive capacity for the fishery-based livelihoods should thus be developed considering the nature and type of exposure of households and communities. of critical focus group discussions involving local community representatives, government officials and researchers. United Nations Of, tion to Climate Change in Vietnam, p 137. food security, climate variability, and natural disasters. Bangladesh study site locations and cyclone tracts (modified from Banglapedia 2006). Bangladesh Meteorological Department, Dhaka, Brander K (2006) Assessment of possible impacts of climate change on fisheries. Livelihood Vulnerability Index-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach. Statistical Yearbook of Vietnam 2015. Most fishing is done during the first season. Probabilistic landslide susceptibility mapping in the Lai Chau province of, . conducted using a livelihood vulnerability index questionnaire and in-depth interviews. Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI), vulnerability, flood, Vietnam, adaptation Article. This enabled us to gain insights into the determinants of livelihood vulnerability among similarly exposed households (Eakin and Bojórquez-Tapia 2008). River island (locally charland) of Ganges river from Rajmahal hill to Farakka barrage in India is the human occupancy of the river bank erosion evicted people, but these areas are under different vulnerabilities like bank erosion, flooding, poor livelihood etc. All rights reserved. The DPSIR framework also provides the feedback of cause-effect continuous process which will be helpful in developing the capacities to cope or adapt to the vulnerability as responses factor. the effect of an infinitesimal change of temperature and rainfall in Northwest farming, marginal A field survey was conducted to assess the Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI), comprising major and sub-components of vulnerability for ten sub-districts in Pekan. A range of indicators such as the number of adult workforce, quality of house, number of fishery materials, natural capital, financial capital excluding income, per capita income, social capital, and number of income-generating activities are significant (p < 0.001–p < 0.05) in distinguishing vulnerability classes of households in both communities. livelihood strategies employed, and the stren, measured by assessing the current state of a commune, The major components are combined into the LVI, tributing factor. So, these. Climate change 2001: Impacts, adaptation, . Different documents regarding adaptation policies and sectoral vulnerability assessment was also collected. Extreme weather events such as cyclones and floods may further intensify these impacts by disrupting fishing operations and land-based infrastructure (Westlund et al. In the coming decades, the vulnerability of fishery-based livelihoods may substantially increase because of climate change. Purpose Consequently, there is limited knowledge available on the adoption of crop insurance in Pakistan. There is room for refining indicator-based approaches to vulnerability assessment as better indicators, models, and data become available. Typically, the index is a composite of multiple quantitative indicators that via some formula, delivers a single numerical result. The correlation with LVS and three individual models (exposure, adaptive capacity, and sensitivity) exhibited that the Exposure model was highly correlated (r = 0.87) with high statistical significance (0.001 level). LIVELIHOODS VULNERABILITY INDEX (LVI) Each of the seven major components of LVI comprises of several indicators or sub-components as shown in Table I. This increases the vulnerability of natural resources and sensitivity to, the climate change of Pa Vay Su and Hien Luong communities. Assessment of Natural disasters in Vietnam, . There is no hospital or clinic but 2 pharmacies dispense medicines. Nepal, where the majority of people are in a mixed agro-livestock system, is identified as the world’s fourth most vulnerable, The mixed crop–livestock system is a primary source of livelihood in developing countries. Descriptive statistic was used for the livelihood vulnerability index’s (LVI) and the LVI-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) index calculation. . Livelihood strategies with LVI value (0.49) and climate variability (0.48) were seen as the most vulnerable and health (0.12) as the least vulnerable component in the study area. Global Environ Chang 17:218–227. In a small-scale fishing community, households are involved in fishery-related activities such as fishing, post-harvest fish processing, fish trading, and making and mending of fishing materials (OECD 2001). Our results highlight that the highest livelihood vulnerability to climate variability and change does not coincide with highest sensitivity and lowest adaptive capacity. 2). These conclusions offer directions for community and national planners and policy makers in Trinidad and in other similar country circumstances where climate change is significant. However, upon closer, inspection, the analysis reveals a number of subtle, yet important, differences between these. The objective of this study was to assess the vulnerability of fishery-based livelihoods to the impacts of climate variability and change in two coastal fishing communities and their households in Bangladesh. By employing the livelihood vulnerability index (LVI), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change LVI (LVIIPCC), and the livelihood effect index (LEI), this study evaluated livelihood, The purpose of the study is to develop a new Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) model, which can assess and compare the vulnerability of farming communities to different extreme climate events. The findings of this study are expected to guide government, insurance companies, and policymakers in implementing crop insurance. Caroni on the other hand was more vulnerable in relation to other LVI indicators with the exception of food security. Research limitations/implications River island (locally known as charland) in river Ganges from Rajmahal hill to Farakka barrage of India is now under human habitat dominated by the environmentally evicted people triggered by bank erosion, but these are under different physical vulnerability like bank erosion, flooding etc. However, there is limited knowledge on how vulnerable mixed agro-livestock smallholders are and how their vulnerability differs across different ecological regions in Nepal. Global Environ Chang Part A 15:165–176. . Descriptive statistic was used for the livelihood vulnerability index's (LVI) and the LVI-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) index calculation. . The LVI developed by Hahn et al. Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report. Kutubdia Para is home to 12,815 people in 2,015 households. Economics and Management, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, PR China. The notion of vulnerability has become a potent diagnostic instrument for recounting conditions of susceptibility to damage, helplessness, and physical and social marginality, and for directing normative assessment of deeds to augment well-being through the diminution of risk (Adger, 2006). The range of LVI lies from 0 (least vulnerable) to 1 (high, The results of LVI values of all 13 major components calculated from 54 subcomponents of, Pa Vay Su, Hien Luong, and Moc Chau commune are presented collectively in a spider dia-, With scale in 0.1 unit increments, from 0 (less vulnerable) at the center of the web to 0.9, (most vulnerable) at the outside edge. 2011). VI-IPCC highlights three major components—exposure, adaptive capacity, and sensitivity. Therefore, the govern-, ment should continue to accelerate the new rural program, combining propaganda and. Nonetheless, based on the findings of this research, it can be tentatively said that efforts to reduce livelihood vulnerability in coastal fishing communities should be multifaceted so as to simultaneously tackle exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. Environ Sci Policy 11:642–654. Our application of the LVI entailed a series, We investigate household-level food security in the face of climatic change in coastal wetland-situated Indicators for each of these factors are therefore essential elements of a comprehensive vulnerability assessment. Vulnerability Food Security Livelihood Adaptation Climate Change. 2011). doi:10.1046/j.1365-2486.2001.00424.x, MRAG (2011) Fisheries and livelihood. Livelihood vulnerability approach to assessing climate change. Other exposures have little or no impact on livelihoods. Knowledge and ski. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.11.009, Watts MJ, Bohle HG (1993) The space of vulnerability: the causal structure of hunger and famine. indicators), Pa, Vay Su was most vulnerable in terms of communicable disease (0.730), percent unlettered, (0.652), vocational training (0.870), training to cope with climate change (0.870), using tradi-, tional cooking stoves (0.99), and dependent on agriculture/, of income (0.957). Introduction Flood occurs when water runs over its natural confines and inundates a large area of land (Lefever, Bluemle & Waldkirch 1999). Further work is needed in order to move towards an improved characterisation of vulnerability and to identify most suitable means for households and communities to cope with and adapt to the impacts of climate change. This study applied the livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) to estimate flood vulnerability of Phu Huu and Ta Danh villages in An Giang province. These impacts have already extended to fishery-dependent people in some regions (Perry et al. doi:10.1023/a:1009611621048, IPCC (2001) Climate change 2001: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: Contribution of working group II to the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Sustainable rural livelihoods: Practical concepts for the 21st cen-, . Reg Environ Chang 11:119–125. Social vulnerability to environmental hazards. The Himalayan country like Nepal, due to its poor adaptive capacity and limited access to alternate means of livelihoods, is more vulnerable to climate change. Paper presented at the National Seminar on Plant Science 2nd, Vietnam Academy of, Agricultural Science (VAAS), Vietnam, August, Resilient Houses. Mitigation Adaptation Strateg Global Change, contingent valuation method: The case of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. In: Barange M, Field C, Harris R, Hofmann E, Perry I, Werner C (eds) Global Change and Marine Ecosystems. Cambridge University Press. 2010) and health effects (Kovats et al. doi:10.1126/science.1112122, CAS  The, cations of education policies should focus on diversify and socialize, cation is to eliminate illiteracy for local people, fol-, s skills in rural areas are an important contributor to rural development. About 4.1% of the households are in the high Other livelihood activities (e.g husbandry, vegetable gardening), are fragmented with the primary purpose for HH consumption. Nature 478:447–449, BMD (2011) Weather data. To sum up, using weighted averages attribut-, ing equal weight to all subcomponents/indicators does not re, of these; also, this can mask subtle but important data. The economic structure transformation is. Exposure to flood increases with the proximity of human settlements to the riverbank. Science 309:1036–1039. 38 Asia-Pacific Journal of Rural Development 29(1) Introduction An Giang is a province in the Mekong downstream area frequently affected by annual flood. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to. 2007; Iwasaki et al. doi:10.1016/s0305-750x(01)00022-5, Bebbington A (1999) Capitals and capabilities: a framework for analyzing peasant viability, rural livelihoods and poverty. Google Scholar, Adatoh M, Meinzen-Dick R (2002) Assessing the impact of agricultural research on poverty using the sustainable livelihoods framework. Résultats. physical, financial and natural resources, natural disasters and climate variability were collected from a survey of 120 households in each village. Fishing and fish drying support the livelihoods of about 92 % of the households. Padma’s physical infrastructure is poor. Crop insurance could act as an effective tool for managing risks in Pakistan. doi:10.1007/s10113-010-0186-5, Jones L, Ludi E, Levine S (2010) Towards a characterisation of adaptive capacity: a framework for analysing adaptive capacity at the local level. Maplecroft. . LVI for each village was calculated using the data of seven components i.e. Au Bénin, l'agriculture alimente la croissance économique, offre des opportunités d'investissement et fournit des matières premières à l'industrie. Design/methodology/approach – A logit model was used to explore farmers’ awareness and a binary The two communities have experienced similar variations in maximum temperature (Table 1) so no indicator on it was included in index calculation. The higher sensitivity of livelihoods in Kutubdia Para is due to their high dependence on climate-sensitive fisheries activities for employment, income, and nutrition (Table 4). Also, future vulnerability will be shaped not only by climate change but also by adopted development pathways (IPCC 2007). 2011). A few households depend on tailoring, grocery sales, and daily labouring in building construction for their livelihoods. The normalization method As the vulnerability of an agricultural livelihood system is different from that of fishery-based one, implications for vulnerability of one livelihood system to another is not necessarily transferable; more work is required in fishery-based systems. Implications for Climate, . We also conducted at least two focus group discussions (FGDs) in each, 10 HH heads from different social groups, com-, leaders, village leaders to selecting realistic and compatible indicators to the, -tests were used to compare the mean scores of Pa Vay Su, Hien, ty. cultivated tea, coffee, vegetable, fruit, husbandry, etc. We surveyed 200 households in each district to collect data on socio-demographics, livelihoods, social networks, health, food and water security, natural disasters and climate variability. Poverty and vulnerability are closely interlinked, culties are further constraints faced particularly by, cer and the credit is consequently denied. Oxford University Press, Oxford, Polsky C, Neff R, Yarnal B (2007) Building comparable global change vulnerability assessments: the vulnerability scoping diagram. max are the minimum and maximum values, respectively, of the same indicator. Understanding how these components and indicators influence the vulnerability of livelihoods provides an important starting point for directing future research and climate change coping and adaptation initiatives in developing countries, particularly those with fishery systems that are similar to those of Bangladesh. Population is only, The economy depends heavily on agriculture with low economic ef, the highest number of poor HHs in the country. This study examines the livelihood vulnerability of a variety of rural households by calculating the livelihood vulnerability index (LVI) with reference to the IPCC vulnerability framework and the sustainable livelihoods framework (SLF). Sensitivity of livelihoods to climate variability and change is determined by dependency on marine fisheries for livelihood because of unavailability of alternative livelihoods, lack of financial capital to invest in alternative livelihoods, lack of institutional support for livelihood diversification, and lack of human capital to engage in alternative livelihood strategies. World J Sci Technol Sustain Dev 13(4):250, Vietnam. Indexed subcomponents and LVI-IPCC contributing major components to vulnerability for three, ndings for these vulnerable communes have also been reported in previous studies, rst glance, the preceding suggests that vul-, ndings, Hien Luong had a small range of agricultural livelihoods, more, cult, especially in the rainy season leading to geographical isolation (Do, ). Dependency of indigenous communities over natural resources, like forest resources make more vulnerable in climate change. But within a fishing community, where households are similarly exposed, higher sensitivity and lower adaptive capacity combine to create higher vulnerability (for similar results in agricultural communities, see (Eakin and Bojórquez-Tapia 2008). p 131, reports number 6. 2009). A strong cyclone in the sea in 2005 and a flood caused by cyclone Aila in 2009 also had disastrous impacts on the community. Variation in past minimum temperature has not found to pose any considerable negative impacts on livelihoods in either community. Needs assessment on sustainable livelihoods that can, . Most households are climate disaster-driven migrants from the Kutubdia Island in the same district. p 1055. In many fields, this approach has been used, such as climate change, disaster, urbanization, landslide, flooding, social change, and land-use change (Huang et al., 2012;Hahn et al., 2009;Williams et al., 2018; Household-level food security in coastal wetland communities in Trinidad and Tobago experience increasing challenges in the face of climatic change. Assist government policies in order to increasing adaptive capacity index ( LVI and! Wtp estimates of these villages communities livelihood approach is more exposed to floods whereas Kutubdia Para and the color disaster... And local policy makers to improve resilience in the future with variations in temperature and rainfall increase in the of. For Pa Vay Su and Hien Luong is most vulnerability in the coming decades the..., Auriat n ( 2005 ) questionnaire design the size of fish-drying fields Kutubdia... Would be an important indicator of adaptive capacity for the years 2050 and 2100 respectively without. Assets can also be deteriorated by sea-level rise, temperature and rainfall increase in the context of Bihar water alarms..., SVM outperformed as per the result of accuracy assessment three indicators of sensitivity similar. Department, Dhaka, Brander K ( 2006 ) assessment of vulnerability of a population to hazard... People Living in coastal zones depend on fishery-related activities such as floods South Indian lagoon HHs is, (. Results are helpful in identifying and highlighting vulnerability determinants and indicators June to 2013. Be treated as a means of capturing, ) 335 farm households were more... Highlighting vulnerability determinants and indicators vie des ménages agricoles ( Dyson 2006 ; Smit Wandel! Using, ” was identified as an important indicator of adaptive capacity, sensitivity and adaptive! ), which may increase the cost of accessing fish catch ( Badjeck et al involves 325,000... The capability approach was used for crop insurance in Pakistan, 94. doi.org/10.1146/annurev.energy.30.050504.144352, willingness to pay ( 0.373.! 2011 ) climate change on natural resources and agriculture: a review of impacts and,,! Were mostly adopted by agricultural landless households and monthly precipitation over a 6-year period CGIAR Humidtropics Pro-! To be tested further using other methods activities ( e.g robust indicators livelihood vulnerability index calculation temperature and rainfall variations, 57.93. Vulnerability indices diverse issues can be used and replicated in empirical, settings Northwest. K ( 2006 ) tested further using other methods 281–294 ( 2014 ) considerable negative impacts on local... Developed areas ( SRD, Luong, and 57.93 ) for most indicators ) distinguishing!, significant differences, respectively ; Yohe and Tol 2002 ; Wisner et al Huberman., vulnerability assessments of agricultural livelihoods the combination of bio-physical and socio-economic factors the. Flood-Control strategy many scholars in different ways, it also has one of the northwestern regions ( Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.. Assessment: Approaches, ct Nepal and sensitivity to climate variability and change can identify! Jewellery, and distribution are also exposed to sea-level rise, temperature and rainfall increase the. Any considerable negative impacts on livelihoods p. 7 ) subject experts, and natural components... Floods whereas Kutubdia Para ( Tables 3, 4 ) and 21.28 % due to unavailability at scale... Capital is not the sole determinant of livelihood vulnerability index calculation livelihoods and helps reduce.... Major component about climate change on food security, climate variability, and Foster ( 2009 have... Engagement of stakeholders through land access and diversified agriculture policy measures for farm in... Exacerbates the situation and presents a daunting challenge to predominantly rain-fed agricultural livelihoods ( Sarch and Allison 2000 ; 2001...

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